Leveraging the resources of DoubleClick, Google was able to improve the metrics for advertisers and offer “more precise metrics in order to judge the effectiveness of their campaigns.” With improved metrics came better documentation of the effectiveness of search and and improved sales. The year 2008 was also the year b-to-b print advertising, a medium challenged with documenting results, started to falter. Coincidence? Hard to say.But let’s look at the present. A recent study of b-to-b marketers from Marketing Sherpa showed budget allocation for paid search is now ahead of print advertising, no small feat for a medium where ads often cost between 30 cents and five dollars each. Think traditional media does not compete against search for ad dollars? Think again. Do your media reps know how to position their products against paid search? It would be best if they could. If your sales staff sells traditional media, understanding how paid search works is a big plus. Today, about half of all online ad dollars go to search, so it is important to understand where most of online money now goes.The first step is for media reps is to ask clients how much of their ad budget goes to search. Many are surprised at how much of the marketing plan goes to a format that started in its current form only 12 years ago—2000 was the year Google first started selling advertising based on keywords.The year search really broke out was 2008. In that year Google indexed a trillion web pages, but more importantly, acquired web analytics giant DoubleClick enabling them to, “dramatically improve the effectiveness, measurably and performance of digital media for publishers, advertisers and agencies.”
New director of the Mayor’s Office of Employment Development Jason Perkins-Cohen. (Courtesy Photo)Connecting city residents to jobs is the straightforward mission of the Mayor’s Office of Employment Development, and that means cultivating various paths to the skills needed for sustainable employment, says its new director, Jason Perkins-Cohen.Perkins-Cohen took over the office earlier this month, having previously served as the executive director for the Job Opportunities Task Force, a workforce development advocacy organization.“What we generally want to do is to get our residents prepared, and help them to obtain as many credentials as possible so that they have the skills that they need and the qualification they need to get a whole host of opportunities,” said Perkins-Cohen in an interview with the AFRO.The idea that we can improve workforce participation by ensuring residents have skills related to openings in a particular field or industry is something of a false promise, says the director, since no one industry has enough jobs for everyone that needs one. This is why it is important to make sure our residents are able to obtain skills and credentials that open up various opportunities, not simply ones related to jobs du jour.“When you’re talking about a city like Baltimore, the most obvious place to start is to make sure that as many people have a high school diploma or a GED [as possible], and then once they have that, then there’s either occupational credentials . . . or you help them advance to postsecondary education . . . where they’re focused on specific jobs or career pathways. It has to be about career pathways,” said Perkins-Cohen.And focusing our job preparedness efforts on career pathways means not relying solely on the promise of four-year college degrees to deliver middle-class or better employment.“College is a great avenue for lots of people and we don’t want to discourage people from obtaining an advanced degree, but there are an awful lot of jobs out there where four years of college is not a requirement, and some of these jobs provide a really strong wage and residents can move into those career pathways relatively quickly without having to take four years or the cost that they would incur (for a four year degree),” said Perkins-Cohen.Many people need a job now, and many employers also need workers now. Increasingly, says Perkins-Cohen, employers are coming to the realization that four year degrees do not always endow people with the specialized skills related to their employment needs, and so alternative paths to skill and job development must be cultivated.“That’s why apprenticeship models and the interest in apprenticeships has really taken off (nationally) in the last couple of years, because employers obviously want a skilled workforce and four years of college provide a well-rounded education, but not always the skills that employers are looking for. And so the apprenticeship model has become—where it was thought of in more of a hands-on sector, previously, and it still is, but now it’s being expanded to sectors like healthcare where apprenticeship wasn’t discussed as much until more recently,” said Perkins-Cohen.The working while learning model embodied by apprenticeships is a faster route to skill development for certain kinds of jobs, says Perkins-Cohen, which helps residents enter careers sooner as well as providing employers with the skilled workers they need in less time.And because connecting residents to efficient career pathways is the basic mission of the Office of Employment Development, Perkins-Cohen also emphasizes the importance of connecting youth to early employment opportunities through the city’s Hire 1 Youth initiative, part of the city’s broader youth employment programming under the banner of Youth Works. Last summer, the city’s efforts led to around 5,000 youths obtaining jobs, an accomplishment Perkins-Cohen wants to see repeated this year.“It is absolutely critical that we create these pathways, and create these opportunities for our youth. . . . [Summer employment] does three things that are incredibly important. One is it provides an income for six weeks in the summer, which is important, but it also teaches the value of work, and it creates an understanding, and an opportunity for a lot of young people to get their foot in the door for a career.”While 5,000 youth jobs is certainly something to be proud of, the city has 14,000 young people in need of employment, and Perkins-Cohen wants to impress upon employers the impact hiring a young person can have by helping to set them on an actual career pathway.“We’ve got 14,000 kids that want to work, which is tremendous, and now we have to come through with the opportunities.”email@example.com
Digitally programmable perovskite nanowire-block copolymer composites Citation: Ultra-Fast Quantum-Dot Information Storage (2008, March 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-03-ultra-fast-quantum-dot-storage.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The information-storage market is dominated by two main types: Flash memory, used in memory sticks and cell phones, and dynamic random access memory (DRAM), which is the main memory in a personal computer. Both types have their advantages and disadvantages, but a new type of memory, based on tiny atom clusters, called quantum dots, may soon displace both of them. In research published in the March 4, 2008, online edition of Applied Physics Letters, scientists from the Technical University of Berlin, in Germany, and Istanbul University, in Turkey, describe how they created a type of quantum-dot-based memory device that can save information at speeds of only a few nanoseconds (billionths of a second).The paper’s lead author, Technical University of Berlin scientist Martin Geller, explained to PhysOrg.com, “Flash memory, which is today’s market-driver in the semiconductor industry, and which everybody knows from memory sticks, digital cameras, and mp3-players, has a slow write time. The semiconductor industry is seeking faster Flash memories, but hasn’t found an ultimate solution yet. Our quantum-dot-based memory may provide long storage time without power consumption of Flash memory, as wells as a fast write time and better scalability to real-life devices.”To be fair, the other established predecessor of quantum-dot memory, DRAM, does have some excellent qualities. It offers very fast information-access times—under 20 nanoseconds—and the information can be repeatedly written and rewritten on a DRAM; it has excellent so-called endurance. But a DRAM device has a big disadvantage: It is volatile, meaning the information has to be refreshed every ten milliseconds to be maintained, also resulting in a high power consumption.“The very first prototype of our new quantum-dot-based memory scheme is already almost as fast as DRAM,” said Andreas Marent, a physicist at the Technical University of Berlin who took part in the research. “And in contrast to DRAM or Flash, the physical characteristics of quantum dots limit the write time to the picosecond, or trillionth of a second, range. That means a better device prototype should be more than 100 times faster than today’s DRAM.”The prototype consists of quantum dots of indium arsenide (InAs), a compound of the metals indium and arsenic, embedded in a layer of gallium arsenide (GaAs; gallium is also a metal). The GaAs layer is “p-doped,” which means it contains impurity atoms that impart it with excess free positively charge called holes. This InAs/GaAs structure is topped with a layer of “n-doped” GaAs, which contains extra electrons. Altogether, the structure is a p-n diode, an electrical device that allows current to flow only in one direction.When a voltage is applied across this structure, the quantum dots become charged, which allows them to store bits of information, i.e. “0” or “1” values. Whether the quantum dots represent a 0 or 1 depends on the capacitance of the diode—how much charge it is holding. A larger capacitance indicates the quantum dots do not hold much positive charge, which equates to a “0.” A smaller capacitance means that the dots are filled with holes, representing a “1.”Geller, Marent, and their colleagues say that the write times of their quantum-dot schemes are currently limited by the experimental setup and certain physical characteristics of the memory structure. In the future, after they make improvements to the structure, they expect that write times faster than 1 nanosecond may be possible. Even picoseconds seem possible, since the structure’s physical limitation is in that range.Said Prof. Dieter Bimberg, who is the group’s leader at the Technical University of Berlin and co-author on the paper, “Our results and patents demonstrate that quantum dots like these we are studying might, in just a few years, revolutionize semiconductor memory.”Citation: Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 092108 (2008)All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com.